Warsaw Pact Agreement

The Warsaw Pact has completed the existing agreements. After World War II, the Soviet Union had bilateral agreements with every Eastern European country except the GDR, which was still part of the Soviet territory occupied by Germany. When the Federal Republic of Germany joined NATO in early May 1955, the Soviets feared the consequences of strengthened NATO and a resurgence of the Federal Republic of Germany, hoping that the Warsaw Treaty could encompass West Germany and negotiate with NATO as an equal partner. Soviet leaders also noted that unrest intensified in Eastern European countries and decided that a unified political and military alliance would more closely link Eastern European capitals to Moscow. The treaty, signed in 1955, was supplemented by numerous bilateral agreements between the Soviet Union and satellite countries. In particular, these treaties gave Soviet troops the right to be on the soil of the signatory countries. Some countries, such as Poland, authorized the deployment of Soviet troops on their soil under the 1945 Potsdam Agreement and through a separate bilateral agreement. Hungary has also entered into a bilateral agreement with the Soviet Union. Soviet troops prevented Hungary`s attempt to separate from the organization in 1956 and broke liberal movements in Czechoslovakia, which emerged in the so-called „Prague Spring”. Czechoslovakia did not sign its bilateral treaty with the Soviet Union until after the Soviet invasion and was essentially forced to accept the „Brezhnev Doctrine”, which restricted the sovereignty of communist states and granted the right to Soviet intervention. The Warsaw Pact was concluded in response to the remilitarization and integration of West Germany into NATO on 9 May 1955.

Before the Warsaw Pact was formed, there were bilateral mutual aid agreements between the Soviet Union and its allies, while the unity of the bloc depended primarily on Stalin`s personal power and informal control instruments. The constitution of the alliance, which confirmed the unity of the bloc and made visible the constant status of the Eastern European states, foreshadowed Soviet adaptations to the policy of détente. The Warsaw Pact existed mostly on paper until the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and the first demonstration of collective military power in joint military exercises this year. In 1979, seventy and a Warsaw Pact military maneuver took place. The extent to which the Soviet Union maintained a military presence in satellite countries depended on its assessment of the risk of each member withdrawing from the organization if it was put under pressure for Soviet troops to be allowed on its soil. When the bilateral agreement with Romania expired in 1958, it was therefore not renewed because Romania wanted to avoid the presence of Soviet troops, including for temporary uses such as maneuvers. On the other hand, Soviet troops were stationed in Bulgaria, but only for temporary purposes, such as military exercises.B. Response of Gheorghe Gheorgiu-Dej, first secretary of the RWP Cc, who agreed with the Soviet Union`s proposal to withdraw its troops from Romania.

[11] These states have strongly protested against the remilitarization of West Germany. [20] The Warsaw Pact was introduced as a result of West Germany`s rearmament within NATO. Soviet leaders, like many European countries on both sides of the Iron Curtain, feared that Germany would once again be a military power and a direct threat. The consequences of German militarism remained a new memory among the Soviets and Eastern Europeans. [5] [6] [21] [22] [23] As the Soviet Union had already concluded bilateral agreements with all its eastern satellites, the pact had long been considered „unnecessary”,[24] and, because of the hasty manner in which it was conceived, NATO officials called it a „cardboard castle”. [25] The USSR had proposed NATO membership in 1954 for fear of the re-establishment of German militarism in West Germany, but the United States and Britain